Purpose: This phase II clinical trial evaluated whether the addition of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SAbR), which may promote tumor antigen presentation, improves the overall response rate (ORR) to high-dose IL2 (HD IL2) in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
Patients and methods: Patients with pathologic evidence of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and radiographic evidence of metastasis were enrolled in this single-arm trial and were treated with SAbR, followed by HD IL2. ORR was assessed based on nonirradiated metastases. Secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), toxicity, and treatment-related tumor-specific immune response. Correlative studies involved whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing, T-cell receptor sequencing, cytokine analysis, and mass cytometry on patient samples.
Results: Thirty ethnically diverse mRCC patients were enrolled. A median of two metastases were treated with SAbR. Among 25 patients evaluable by RECIST v1.1, ORR was 16% with 8% complete responses. Median OS was 37 months. Treatment-related adverse events (AE) included 22 grade ≥3 events that were not dissimilar from HD IL2 alone. There were no grade 5 AEs. A correlation was observed between SAbR to lung metastases and improved PFS (P = 0.0165). Clinical benefit correlated with frameshift mutational load, mast cell tumor infiltration, decreased circulating tumor-associated T-cell clones, and T-cell clonal expansion. Higher regulatory/CD8+ T-cell ratios at baseline in the tumor and periphery correlated with no clinical benefit.
Conclusions: Adding SAbR did not improve the response rate to HD IL2 in patients with mRCC in this study. Tissue analyses suggest a possible correlation between frameshift mutation load as well as tumor immune infiltrates and clinical outcomes.
©2021 American Association for Cancer Research.