Advance toward isolation, extraction, metabolism and health benefits of kaempferol, a major dietary flavonoid with future perspectives

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2021 Sep 23;1-17. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2021.1980762. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

As a major ubiquitous secondary metabolite, flavonoids are widely distributed in planta. Among flavonoids, kaempferol is a typical natural flavonol in diets and medicinal plants with myriad bioactivities, such as anti-inflammatory activity, anti-cancer activity, antioxidant activity, and anti-diabetic activity. However, the natural sources, absorption and metabolism as well as the bioactivities of kaempferol have not been reviewed comprehensively and systematically. This review highlights the latest research progress and the effect of kaempferol in the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases, as well as its protective health effects, and provides a theoretical basis for future research to be used in nutraceuticals. Further, comparison of the different extraction and analytical methods are presented to highlight the most optimum for PG recovery and its detection in plasma and body fluids. Such review aims at improving the value-added applications of this unique dietary bioactive flavonoids at commercial scale and to provide a reference for its needed further development.

Keywords: Kaempferol; analysis; anti-cancer; anti-diabetic; anti-inflammation; extraction; metabolism.