Swedish guidelines for type 1 diabetes and pregnancy outcomes: A nationwide descriptive study of consensus and adherence

Prim Care Diabetes. 2021 Dec;15(6):1040-1051. doi: 10.1016/j.pcd.2021.08.003. Epub 2021 Sep 21.


Aims: Type 1 diabetes (DM1) during pregnancy and labor is associated with an increased risk of maternal and fetal complications. Evidence-based care is therefore provided in accordance with guidelines. In this study, we aimed to compare all the Swedish guidelines for DM1 during pregnancy and labor in terms of the variables emphasized in the national guidelines from the US and from England and Wales. The second aim was to measure adherence to local guidelines at the four hospitals in Stockholm that cared for pregnant women with DM1 during 2016 and to describe the pregnancy and labor outcomes.

Methods: All the Swedish guidelines for DM1 during pregnancy and labor were reviewed on 31 variables. The medical records of 114 women were reviewed according to whether ≥70% of 22 variables in the guidelines were followed.

Results: No consensus was found in the Swedish guidelines for any of the 31 variables. Some guidelines were contradictory. The pregnancy guidelines were followed in 17.5% of the medical records, 18.4% followed the labor guidelines, and 5.3% followed both guidelines. The onset of labor, mode of delivery and HbA1c in the third trimester varied significantly, depending on the adherence to guidelines.

Conclusions: The Swedish guidelines for DM1 during pregnancy and labor lack both consensus and adherence. A national guideline on DM1 during pregnancy and childbirth with high adherence could improve care for pregnant Swedish women with DM1 and their fetuses.

Keywords: Adherence on guidelines; Labor; Pregnancy; Type 1 diabetes.

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / drug therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / epidemiology
  • England
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Pregnancy
  • Sweden / epidemiology
  • Wales