Clinical Utility of Urinary Biomarkers for Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Renal Dysfunction After Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair

Int J Nephrol Renovasc Dis. 2021 Sep 17:14:371-384. doi: 10.2147/IJNRD.S322916. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Purpose: We examined the clinical utility of perioperative monitoring of urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and albumin, for prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) and prediction of chronic renal dysfunction in patients undergoing open surgical repair (OSR) of an abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Patients and methods: Urine and serum samples were obtained perioperatively from 64 such patients (n=64). Patients in whom OSR-related AKI (defined by the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria) occurred were identified. Renal function was evaluated 3 years after OSR in patients with OSR-related AKI.

Results: The urinary biomarkers examined increased to maximum levels by 2 hours after aortic cross-clamping (AXC), regardless of whether AKI occurred. Notably, the serum creatinine (Cr) levels increased significantly immediately after OSR in patients with AKI (n=19) (vs that in patients without AKI). In patients with AKI, the increased serum Cr elevation rate, the urinary L-FABP levels 2 hours after AXC and immediately after OSR, and a reduction in eGFR documented 3 years after OSR were significantly greater in patients who underwent suprarenal AXC (n=11) than in those who underwent infrarenal AXC (n=8). Furthermore, urinary L-FABP levels 2 hours after AXC correlated significantly with the reductions in eGFR 3 years after OSR in patients with AKI.

Conclusion: Urinary L-FABP, NGAL and albumin concentrations 2 hours after AXC may be useful for early detection of OSR-related AKI. Furthermore, the increase in urinary L-FABP 2 hours after AXC may be predictive of chronic renal dysfunction in patients with OSR-related AKI.

Keywords: AKI; L-FABP; NGAL; acute kidney injury; chronic renal dysfunction; open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair; urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein; urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin.