Proteomic analysis of aqueous humor in canine primary angle-closure glaucoma in American Cocker Spaniel dogs

Vet Ophthalmol. 2021 Sep;24(5):520-532. doi: 10.1111/vop.12937. Epub 2021 Sep 23.


Objective: To analyze proteomic profiles of the aqueous humor (AH) of canines with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and identify associated protein alterations.

Animals studied: Six American Cocker Spaniels with PACG and six American Cocker Spaniels without ocular diseases.

Methods: Aqueous humor samples were collected from six American Cocker Spaniels with PACG at Seoul National University, VMTH, and six healthy Cocker Spaniels without ocular disease at Irion Animal Hospital. For the PACG group, AH samples were obtained by anterior chamber paracentesis prior to glaucoma treatment. For the AH control group, AH samples were collected from patients anesthetized for other reasons. Total AH protein concentration was determined by the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay. AH protein samples were quantified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Raw MS spectra were processed using MaxQuant software 30, and the Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was performed using ClueGO.

Results: The AH protein concentration in the PACG group (10.49 ± 17.98 µg/µl) was significantly higher than that of the control group (0.45 ± 0.11 µg/µl; p < .05). A total of 758 proteins were identified in the AH. Several proteins both significantly increased (n = 69) and decreased (n = 252) in the PACG group compared to those in the control group. GO enrichment analysis showed that the "response to wounding," "negative regulation of endopeptidase activity," and "cell growth" pathways were the most enriched terms in the PACG group compared to the control group. The top 5 proteins that were significantly increased in the AH of the PACG group were secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), peptidoglycan recognition proteins 2 (PGLYRP2), tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAE), maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM), and vimentin (VIM).

Conclusions: Gene Ontology enrichment analysis using the proteomic data showed that proteins and pathways related to inflammation were significantly upregulated in the various stage of PACG. Proteomic analysis of the AH from the PACG may provide valuable insights into PACG pathogenesis.

Keywords: LC-MS/MS; angle-closure glaucoma; aqueous humor; dog; proteomics.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aqueous Humor / metabolism*
  • Biomarkers / metabolism
  • Dog Diseases / metabolism*
  • Dogs
  • Eye Proteins / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / metabolism
  • Glaucoma, Angle-Closure / veterinary*
  • Male
  • Proteomics


  • Biomarkers
  • Eye Proteins