Standard CPR versus interposed abdominal compression CPR in shunted single ventricle patients: comparison using a lumped parameter mathematical model

Cardiol Young. 2022 Jul;32(7):1122-1128. doi: 10.1017/S1047951121003917. Epub 2021 Sep 24.


Introduction: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in the shunted single-ventricle population is associated with poor outcomes. Interposed abdominal compression-cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or IAC-CPR, is an adjunct to standard CPR in which pressure is applied to the abdomen during the recoil phase of chest compressions.

Methods: A lumped parameter model that represents heart chambers and blood vessels as resistors and capacitors was used to simulate blood flow in both Blalock-Taussig-Thomas and Sano circulations. For standard CPR, a prescribed external pressure waveform was applied to the heart chambers and great vessels to simulate chest compressions. IAC-CPR was modelled by adding phasic compression pressure to the abdominal aorta. Differential equations for the model were solved by a Runge-Kutta method.

Results: In the Blalock-Taussig-Thomas model, mean pulmonary blood flow during IAC-CPR was 30% higher than during standard CPR; cardiac output increased 21%, diastolic blood pressure 16%, systolic blood pressure 8%, coronary perfusion pressure 17%, and coronary blood flow 17%. In the Sano model, pulmonary blood flow during IAC-CPR increased 150%, whereas cardiac output was improved by 13%, diastolic blood pressure 18%, systolic blood pressure 8%, coronary perfusion pressure 15%, and coronary blood flow 14%.

Conclusions: In this model, IAC-CPR confers significant advantage over standard CPR with respect to pulmonary blood flow, cardiac output, blood pressure, coronary perfusion pressure, and coronary blood flow. These results support the notion that single-ventricle paediatric patients may benefit from adjunctive resuscitation techniques, and underscores the need for an in-vivo trial of IAC-CPR in children.

Keywords: IAC-CPR; interposed abdominal compressions; single-ventricle.

MeSH terms

  • Abdomen
  • Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation* / methods
  • Child
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Pressure