Mitochondria are dynamic organelles responsible for cellular energy production. Besides, regulating energy homeostasis, mitochondria are responsible for calcium homeostasis, signal transmission, and the fate of cellular survival in case of injury and pathologies. Accumulating reports have suggested multiple roles of mitochondria in neuropathologies, neurodegeneration, and immune activation under physiological and pathological conditions. Mitochondrial dysfunction, which occurs at the initial phase of brain injury, involves oxidative stress, inflammation, deficits in mitochondrial bioenergetics, biogenesis, transport, and autophagy. Thus, development of targeted therapeutics to protect mitochondria may improve functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH). In this review, we summarize mitochondrial dysfunction related to TBI and ICH, including the mechanisms involved, and discuss therapeutic approaches with special emphasis on past and current clinical trials.
Keywords: Brain injury; Immune activation; Mitochondrial bioenergetics; Mitochondrial biogenesis; Mitophagy; Therapeutic approach.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.