Gestational diabetes mellitus - A metabolic and reproductive disorder

Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Nov:143:112183. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112183. Epub 2021 Sep 21.


Maternal health associated with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) has been gaining significant research attention due to its severe risk and adverse health effects. GDM is the leading health disease in pregnant women. It is the most common metabolic disease and it can affect up to 25% of women during pregnancy. Pregnancy is a sensitive period that impacts both pregnant women and their unborn children's long-term health. It is a well-known fact that the leading causes of disease and mortality worldwide are diabetes mellitus and cancer, and specifically, women with diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer (BC). Women who have diabetes are equally vulnerable to reproductive diseases. Reproductive dysfunctions with diabetes are mainly attributed to coexisting polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), obesity, and hyperinsulinemia, etc. Moreover, India has long been recognized as the world's diabetic capital, and it is widely acknowledged that particularly pregnant and lactating women are among the most affected by diabetes. In India, one-third (33%) of women with GDM had a history of maternal diabetes. Nevertheless, the latest research suggests that gestational diabetes is also a risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases of the mother and offspring. Therefore, in the 21st century, GDM imposes a major challenge for healthcare professionals. We intend to explore the role of diabetes on female reproductive function throughout various stages of life in the perspective of the changing prognosis, prevalence, and prevention of GDM.

Keywords: Diabetes; Gestational; Hyperinsulinemia; Pregnancy; Reproductive.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Breast Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Cardiometabolic Risk Factors
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / physiopathology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy
  • Diabetes, Gestational / diagnosis
  • Diabetes, Gestational / epidemiology*
  • Diabetes, Gestational / physiopathology
  • Diabetes, Gestational / therapy
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Maternal Health*
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / physiopathology
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome / prevention & control
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / diagnosis
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / epidemiology*
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / physiopathology
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / therapy
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Reproduction
  • Reproductive Health*
  • Risk Assessment


  • Blood Glucose