For the determination of whether lung cancer clusters in families, an analysis was conducted on demographic and morbidity-mortality data, occupational and industrial experiences, and tobacco use practices for family members of 336 deceased lung cancer probands and 307 controls (probands' spouses). First-degree relatives of probands, compared with first-degree relatives of controls, showed a strong excess risk for lung cancer. Overall, male relatives of probands had a greater risk for lung cancer than did their female counterparts, and the risk was fourfold for parents of probands as compared with parents of spouses. Female relatives of probands over 40 years old were at nine times higher risk than similarly aged female controls, even among those who were non-smokers and who had not reported excessive exposure to hazardous occupations; the risk was fourfold to sixfold for heavy smokers. After control for the confounding effects of age, sex, cigarette smoking, and occupational and industrial exposures, relationship to proband remained a significant determinant of lung cancer, with a 2.4-fold greater risk among relatives of probands.