Anaphylaxis and epinephrine autoinjector use in pediatric patients with cutaneous mastocytosis

Pediatr Dermatol. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1111/pde.14800. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Background/objectives: Mastocytosis is a complex disorder presenting with a broad clinical spectrum. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the frequency of systemic symptoms, necessity of the usage of epinephrine autoinjectors (EAI), and factors affecting the use of EAI among pediatric patients with cutaneous mastocytosis (CM).

Methods: The study population was composed of 53 patients with CM. The clinical data were collected from the medical files. A questionnaire about the patient's anaphylaxis experiences and treatment attitudes toward EAI was performed.

Results: Thirty-three of 53 patients were male (62.3%), and the median age of the study participants was 80 months. Anaphylaxis was reported in two patients (3.7%). One of the patients had drug-induced anaphylaxis, and the other had venom-induced anaphylaxis. Three patients (5.6%) reported a personal history of EAI use due to systemic symptoms. Patients with higher serum tryptase level and cases of familial mastocytosis had more systemic symptoms (P = .012 and P = .010, respectively). The patient rate of compliance with EAI for prescription filling and carrying the EAI was 88.7% and 79.2% respectively. 41.5% of parents were hesitant to use EAI when necessary, although they were trained for the use of it by medical staff.

Conclusions: The rate of anaphylaxis in patients with CM in the current study wassignificant and justifies prescribing EAI. Detailed education and counseling on EAI usage are needed to reduce parental hesitancy.

Keywords: anaphylaxis; cutaneous mastocytosis; epinephrine autoinjectors; mastocytosis.