Background: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a rare and newly defined disease, which most commonly occurs in women of reproductive age and can be a sequela of any gestational event. ETT can be present in both intrauterine and extrauterine sites.
Case report: A woman of reproductive age, without specific comorbidities and with a single pregnancy and natural childbirth eight years ago, was diagnosed initially with poorly differentiated pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma on the hemostatic uterine curettage.
Conclusion: Our case highlights that ETT presents a diagnostic challenge due to its rarity and histologic resemblance to other pathologies. Misdiagnosis delays effective treatment and affects survival. To date, only 8 cases of ETT of the uterus without previous gestational event and normal human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) levels in a 60-year literature survey have been reported.
Keywords: epithelioid trophoblastic tumor; pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma; vaginal bleeding.