Roles of Suaeda vermiculata Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract, Its Subsequent Fractions, and the Isolated Compounds in Hepatoprotection against Paracetamol-Induced Toxicity as Compared to Silymarin

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021 Sep 8;2021:6174897. doi: 10.1155/2021/6174897. eCollection 2021.


Suaeda vermiculata, a halophyte consumed by livestock, is also used by Bedouins to manage liver disorders. The aqueous-ethanolic extract of S. vermiculata, its subsequent fractions, and pure compounds, i.e., pheophytin-A (1), isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (2), and quercetin (3), were evaluated for their hepatoprotective efficacy. The male mice were daily fed with either silymarin, plant aq.-ethanolic extract, fractions, pure isolated compounds, or carboxyl methylcellulose (CMC) for 7 days (n = 6/group, p.o.). On the day 7th of the administrations, all, except the intact animal groups, were induced with hepatotoxicity using paracetamol (PCM, 300 mg/kg). The anesthetized animals were euthanized after 24 h; blood and liver tissues were collected and analysed. The serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels decreased significantly for all the S. vermiculata aq.-ethanolic extract, fraction, and compound-treated groups when equated with the PCM group (p < 0.0001). The antioxidant, superoxide dismutase (SOD), increased significantly (p < 0.05) for the silymarin-, n-hexane-, and quercetin-fed groups. Similarly, the catalase (CAT) enzyme level significantly increased for all the groups, except for the compound 2-treated group as compared to the CMC group. Also, the glutathione reductase (GR) levels were significantly increased for the n-butanol treated group than for the PCM group. The oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid peroxide (LP) and nitric oxide (NO), the inflammatory markers, IL-6 and TNF-α, and the kidney's functional biomarker parameters remained unchanged and did not differ significantly for the treated groups in comparison to the PCM-induced toxicity bearing animals. All the treated groups demonstrated significant decreases in cholesterol levels as compared to the PCM group, indicating hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects. The quercetin-treated group demonstrated significant improvement in triglyceride level. The S. vermiculata aq.-ethanolic extract, fractions, and the isolated compounds demonstrated their hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects, confirming the claimed traditional use of the herb as a liver protectant.

MeSH terms

  • Acetaminophen / toxicity*
  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic / toxicity
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Chenopodiaceae / chemistry*
  • Drug Interactions
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology
  • Silymarin / pharmacology*


  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  • Antioxidants
  • Plant Extracts
  • Protective Agents
  • Silymarin
  • Acetaminophen