The prognostic significance of vitamin D deficiency in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia

Bratisl Lek Listy. 2021;122(10):744-747. doi: 10.4149/BLL_2021_119.


Background: Vitamin D has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects via the downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We aimed to demonstrate the effect of vitamin D levels on survival in COVID-19 patients.

Materials and methods: 207 COVID-19 patients were included in the study. Serum vitamin D levels were measured, and patients with levels <20 ng/ml or 21 to 30 ng received a single 300.000 IU dose of vitamin D.

Results: Of 207 patients, 37 received vitamin D, while 170 did not. Demographic, radiologic and mean laboratory values were similar between the groups. The mean plasma vitamin D level without vitamin D support (n=170) was 50.82±16.12 ng/ml (30.28-81.35) vs. 16.98±6.2 ng/ml (4.20-28.30) in vitamin D group. The most remarkable finding were the mortality rates; while only 1 patient (2.7 %) died in the vitamin D group, 24 patients (14.1 %) died in no vitamin D supplementation group (p=0.038).

Conclusion: Although a few retrospective studies put forth a relation between vitamin D deficiency and COVID-19 course severity there is still paucity of data about the efficacy of vitamin supplementations in COVID-19 patients. A single 300.000 IU dose of vitamin D seems to represent a useful, practical, and safe adjunctive approach for the treatment or prevention of COVID-19 (Tab. 1, Fig. 1, Ref. 30).

Keywords: COVID-19 prognosis.; vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Humans
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / complications
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / diagnosis
  • Vitamin D Deficiency* / drug therapy


  • Vitamin D