Store-Operated Calcium Entry in Skeletal Muscle: What Makes It Different?

Cells. 2021 Sep 8;10(9):2356. doi: 10.3390/cells10092356.

Abstract

Current knowledge on store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) regarding its localization, kinetics, and regulation is mostly derived from studies performed in non-excitable cells. After a long time of relative disinterest in skeletal muscle SOCE, this mechanism is now recognized as an essential contributor to muscle physiology, as highlighted by the muscle pathologies that are associated with mutations in the SOCE molecules STIM1 and Orai1. This review mainly focuses on the peculiar aspects of skeletal muscle SOCE that differentiate it from its counterpart found in non-excitable cells. This includes questions about SOCE localization and the movement of respective proteins in the highly organized skeletal muscle fibers, as well as the diversity of expressed STIM isoforms and their differential expression between muscle fiber types. The emerging evidence of a phasic SOCE, which is activated during EC coupling, and its physiological implication is described as well. The specific issues related to the use of SOCE modulators in skeletal muscles are discussed. This review highlights the complexity of SOCE activation and its regulation in skeletal muscle, with an emphasis on the most recent findings and the aim to reach a current picture of this mesmerizing phenomenon.

Keywords: Ca2+ entry sites; Orai; SOCE pharmacology; STIM; phasic SOCE; skeletal muscle; store-operated Ca2+ entry.

Publication types

  • Review