The diagnostic value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the role of FDG uptake in the diagnosis of different degrees of dysplasia of IPMNs. We retrospectively analyzed the following three points in 84 patients with IPMNs: (1) risk factors to predict high-grade dysplasia (HGD) and invasive carcinoma (INV); (2) the relationship between FDG uptake and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) expression; and (3) the relationship between FDG uptake and the presence of mural nodules. The histopathological diagnosis was low-grade dysplasia (LGD) in 43 patients, HGD in 16, and INV in 25. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV-max) was significantly higher in INV than in LGD/HGD (p < 0.0001, p = 0.0136). The sensitivity and specificity to discriminate INV from LGD/HGD were 80.0% and 86.2%, respectively, using the receiver operator characteristic curve, when the optimal cutoff score of SUV-max was set at 4.03. Those values were not different between HGD and LGD. More than half of HGD patients had low GLUT-1 expression. Taken together, FDG-PET/CT is useful in distinguishing between non-invasive and invasive IPMN. Our results offer critical information that may determine surgical treatment strategies.
Keywords: FDG; GLUT-1; IPMN; PET; glucose transporter 1; high-grade dysplasia; mural nodule.