Rice is one of the most cultivated and consumed cereals worldwide. It is composed of starch, which is an important source of diet energy, hypoallergenic proteins, and other bioactive compounds with known nutritional functionalities. Noteworthy is that the rice bran (outer layer of rice grains), a side-stream product of the rice milling process, has a higher content of bioactive compounds than white rice (polished rice grains). Bran functional ingredients such as γ-oryzanol, phytic acid, ferulic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, tocopherols, and tocotrienols (vitamin E) have been linked to several health benefits. In this study, we reviewed the effects of rice glycemic index, macronutrients, and bioactive compounds on the pathological mechanisms associated with diabetes, identifying the rice compounds potentially exerting protective activities towards disease control. The effects of starch, proteins, and bran bioactive compounds for diabetic control were reviewed and provide important insights about the nutritional quality of rice-based foods.
Keywords: GLUT1; IAPP; SGLT2; diabetes; ferulic acid; phytic acid; rice bran; vitamin E; γ-aminobutyric acid; γ-oryzanol.