Cost of Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Based on Real-World Data: An Observational Population-Based Study in Spain

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Sep 18;18(18):9853. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18189853.


This study analyzed the prevalence, costs and economic impact of chronic kidney disease CKD in patients with T2D in a Spanish Health District using real-world data. Observational cross-sectional study in adult patients with T2D was through data extracted from the information systems of the Valencia Clínico-La Malvarrosa Health District in the year 2015. Patients were stratified with the KDIGO classification for CKD. Additionally, patients were assigned to Clinical Risk Groups (CRGs) according to multimorbidity. Direct costs of primary and specialized care, and medication were estimated. The prevalence of T2D in the database population (n = 28,345) was 10.8% (mean age (SD) = 67.8 years (13.9); 51.5% male). Up to 14.935 patients (52.6%) had data on kidney function. According to the KDIGO classification, 66.2% of the patients were at low risk of CKD, 20.6% at moderately increased risk, 7.9% at high risk, and 5.2% at very high risk. The average healthcare costs associated with these four risk groups were EUR 3437, EUR 4936, EUR 5899 and EUR 7389, respectively. The large number of T2D patients with CKD in the early stages of the disease generated a significant increase in direct healthcare costs. The economic impact could be mitigated by early and comprehensive therapeutic approaches.

Keywords: Clinical Risk Groups; KDIGO classification; burden of care; chronic kidney disease; costs; healthcare resources; type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Health Care Costs
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / epidemiology
  • Spain / epidemiology