Interrogating Epigenome toward Personalized Approach in Cutaneous Melanoma

J Pers Med. 2021 Sep 9;11(9):901. doi: 10.3390/jpm11090901.


Epigenetic alterations have emerged as essential contributors in the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including cutaneous melanoma (CM). Unlike genetic changes, epigenetic modifications are highly dynamic and reversible and thus easy to regulate. Here, we present a comprehensive review of the latest research findings on the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in CM initiation and development. We believe that a better understanding of how aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications, along with other molecular processes, affect the genesis and clinical behavior of CM can provide the clinical management of this disease a wide range of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, as well as potential therapeutic targets that can be used to prevent or abrogate drug resistance. We will also approach the modalities by which these epigenetic alterations can be used to customize the therapeutic algorithms in CM, the current status of epi-therapies, and the preliminary results of epigenetic and traditional combinatorial pharmacological approaches in this fatal disease.

Keywords: biomarkers; cutaneous melanoma; drug resistance; epigenetic regulation; epigenetic therapy; immune response; inflammation; therapeutic targets.

Publication types

  • Review