Identifying and adopting industrial applications for proteins and enzymes derived from fungi strains have been at the focal point of several studies in recent times. To facilitate such studies, it is necessary that advancements and innovation in mycological and molecular characterisation are concomitant. This review aims to provide a detailed overview of the necessary steps employed in both qualitative and quantitative research using the omics technologies that are pertinent to fungi characterisation. This stems from the understanding that data provided from the functional characterisation of fungi and their metabolites is important towards the techno-economic feasibility of large-scale production of biological products. The review further describes how the functional gaps left by genomics, internal transcribe spacer (ITS) regions are addressed by transcriptomics and the various techniques and platforms utilised, including quantitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), hybridisation techniques, and RNA-seq, and the insights such data provide on the effect of environmental changes on fungal enzyme production from an expressional standpoint. The review also offers information on the many available bioinformatics tools of analysis necessary for the analysis of the overwhelming data synonymous with the omics approach to fungal characterisation.
Keywords: bioinformatics; fungi; lignin modifying enzymes; omics.