Potassium Alginate Oligosaccharides Alter Gut Microbiota, and Have Potential to Prevent the Development of Hypertension and Heart Failure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 11;22(18):9823. doi: 10.3390/ijms22189823.

Abstract

Food-derived oligosaccharides show promising therapeutic potential in lowering blood pressure (BP), but the mechanism is poorly understood. Recently, the potential role of gut microbiota (GM) in hypertension has been investigated, but the specific GM signature that may participate in hypertension remains unclear. To test the potassium alginate oligosaccharides (PAO) mechanism in lowering BP and specific microbial signature changes in altering GM, we administered various dosages of PAO in 40 spontaneously hypertensive rats for a duration of six weeks. We analyzed BP, sequenced the 16S ribosomal DNA gene in the cecum content, and gathered RNA-seq data in cardiac tissues. We showed that the oral administration of PAO could significantly decrease systolic BP and mean arterial pressure. Transcriptome analyses demonstrated that the protective effects of developing heart failure were accompanied by down-regulating of the Natriuretic Peptide A gene expression and by decreasing the concentrations of angiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptide in plasma. In comparison to the Vehicle control, PAO could increase the microbial diversity by altering the composition of GM. PAO could also decrease the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes by decreasing the abundance of Prevotella and Phascolarctobacterium bacteria. The favorable effect of PAO may be added to the positive influence of the abundance of major metabolites produced by Gram-negative bacteria in GM. We suggest that PAO caused changes in GM, and thus, they played an important role in preventing the development of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: blood pressure; gut microbiota; heart failure; potassium alginate oligosaccharides.