Anaesthesia-Induced Transcriptomic Changes in the Context of Renal Ischemia Uncovered by the Use of a Novel Clamping Device

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 11;22(18):9840. doi: 10.3390/ijms22189840.


Ischemia is a common cause of acute kidney injury worldwide, frequently occurring in patients undergoing cardiac surgery or admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Thus, ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains one of the main experimental models for the study of kidney diseases. However, the classical technique, based on non-traumatic surgical clamps, suffers from several limitations. It does not allow the induction of multiple episodes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the same animal, which would be relevant from a human perspective. It also requires a deep and long sedation, raising the question of potential anaesthesia-related biases. We designed a vascular occluding device that can be activated remotely in conscious mice. We first assessed the intensity and the reproducibility of the acute kidney injury induced by this new device. We finally investigated the role played by the anaesthesia in the IRI models at the histological, functional and transcriptomic levels. We showed that this technique allows the rapid induction of renal ischemia in a repeatable and reproducible manner, breaking several classical limitations. In addition, we used its unique specificities to highlight the renal protective effect conferred by the anaesthesia, related to the mitigation of the IRI transcriptomic program.

Keywords: acute kidney injury; anaesthesia; animal models; renal ischemia; surgical clamp.

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia*
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Ketamine / adverse effects
  • Ketamine / pharmacology*
  • Kidney / metabolism*
  • Kidney Diseases / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Reperfusion Injury / metabolism*
  • Transcriptome*
  • Xylazine / adverse effects
  • Xylazine / pharmacology*


  • Xylazine
  • Ketamine