Influence of Human Jaw Periosteal Cells Seeded β-Tricalcium Phosphate Scaffolds on Blood Coagulation

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Sep 14;22(18):9942. doi: 10.3390/ijms22189942.


Tissue engineering offers auspicious opportunities in oral and maxillofacial surgery to heal bone defects. For this purpose, the combination of cells with stability-providing scaffolds is required. Jaw periosteal cells (JPCs) are well suited for regenerative therapies, as they are easily accessible and show strong osteogenic potential. In this study, we analyzed the influence of uncoated and polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA)-coated β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds on JPC colonization and subsequent osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, interaction with the human blood was investigated. This study demonstrated that PLGA-coated and uncoated β-TCP scaffolds can be colonized with JPCs and further differentiated into osteogenic cells. On day 15, after cell seeding, JPCs with and without osteogenic differentiation were incubated with fresh human whole blood under dynamic conditions. The activation of coagulation, complement system, inflammation, and blood cells were analyzed using ELISA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). JPC-seeded scaffolds showed a dense cell layer and osteogenic differentiation capacity on both PLGA-coated and uncoated β-TCP scaffolds. SEM analyses showed no relevant blood cell attachment and ELISA results revealed no significant increase in most of the analyzed cell activation markers (β-thromboglobulin, Sc5B-9, polymorphonuclear (PMN)-elastase). However, a notable increase in thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complex levels, as well as fibrin fiber accumulation on JPC-seeded β-TCP scaffolds, was detected compared to the scaffolds without JPCs. Thus, this study demonstrated that besides the scaffold material the cells colonizing the scaffolds can also influence hemostasis, which can influence the regeneration of bone tissue.

Keywords: biomaterial; bone tissue engineering; hemocompatibility; jaw periosteal cells; β-tricalcium phosphate.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Cell Count
  • Blood Coagulation / drug effects*
  • Blood Platelets / drug effects
  • Blood Platelets / metabolism
  • Calcification, Physiologic / drug effects
  • Calcium Phosphates / pharmacology*
  • Cell Differentiation / drug effects
  • Complement System Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Jaw / cytology*
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects
  • Periosteum / cytology*
  • Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer / pharmacology
  • Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry*


  • Calcium Phosphates
  • beta-tricalcium phosphate
  • Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer
  • Complement System Proteins