Development of an Analytic Convection Model for a Heated Multi-Hole Probe for Aircraft Applications

Sensors (Basel). 2021 Sep 16;21(18):6218. doi: 10.3390/s21186218.


Ice accretion or icing is a well-known phenomenon that entails a risk for the correct functioning of an aircraft. One of the areas more vulnerable to icing is the air data measuring system. This paper studies the icing protection offered by a heating system installed inside a multi-hole probe. The problem is initially solved analytically, creating a tool that can be used in order to predict the heating performance depending on the flying conditions. Later, the performance of the real system is investigated with a heated five-hole probe prototype in a wind tunnel experiment. The measured results are compared with the predictions made by the analytical model. Last, the icing protection provided by the system is estimated with respect to flying altitude and speed. As a result, a prediction tool that can be used in order to make quick icing risk predictions for straight cylindrical probes is delivered. Furthermore, the study provides some understanding about how parameters like altitude and air speed affect the occurrence of ice accretion.

Keywords: additive manufacturing; anti-icing; convection; dimensional analysis; heat transfer; ice accretion; icing; multi-hole probe; standard atmosphere.