Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Review of Diagnosis and Management

Medicina (Kaunas). 2021 Aug 28;57(9):895. doi: 10.3390/medicina57090895.


Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are rare diseases that are characterized by widespread epidermal necrosis and sloughing of skin. They are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and early diagnosis and treatment is critical in achieving favorable outcomes for patients. In this scoping review, Excerpta Medica dataBASE and PubMed were searched for publications that addressed recent advances in the diagnosis and management of the disease. Multiple proteins (galectin 7 and RIP3) were identified that are promising potential biomarkers for SJS/TEN, although both are still in early phases of research. Regarding treatment, cyclosporine is the most effective therapy for the treatment of SJS, and a combination of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and corticosteroids is most effective for SJS/TEN overlap and TEN. Due to the rare nature of the disease, there is a lack of prospective, randomized controlled trials and conducting these in the future would provide valuable insights into the management of this disease.

Keywords: Stevens–Johnson Syndrome; Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis; cutaneous adverse drug reactions.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Cyclosporine / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use
  • Skin
  • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome* / diagnosis
  • Stevens-Johnson Syndrome* / drug therapy


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
  • Cyclosporine