Miktoarm Star Copolymers Prepared by Transformation from Enhanced Spin Capturing Polymerization to Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization (ESCP- Ŧ-NMP) toward Nanomaterials

Nanomaterials (Basel). 2021 Sep 14;11(9):2392. doi: 10.3390/nano11092392.


Reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP) serves as a powerful tool nowadays for the preparations of unique linear and non-linear macromolecules. In this study, enhanced spin capturing polymerizations (ESCPs) of styrene (St) and tert-butyl acrylate (tBA) monomers were, respectively, conducted in the presence of difunctional (1Z,1'Z)-1,1'-(1,4-phenylene) bis (N-tert-butylmethanimine oxide) (PBBN) nitrone. Four-arm (PSt)4 and (PtBA)4 star macroinitiators (MIs) can be afforded. By correspondingly switching the second monomer (i.e., tBA and St), miktoarm star copolymers (μ-stars) of (PSt)2-μ-(PtBA-b-PSt)2 and (PtBA)2-μ-(PSt-b-PtBA)2) were thus obtained. We further conducted hydrolysis of the PtBA segments to PAA (i.e., poly(acrylic acid)) in μ-stars to afford amphiphilic μ-stars of (PSt)2-μ-(PAA-b-PSt)2 and (PAA)2-μ-(PSt-b-PAA)2. We investigated each polymerization step and characterized the obtained two sets of "sequence-isomeric" μ-stars by FT-IR, 1H NMR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Interestingly, we identified their physical property differences in the case of amphiphilic μ-stars by water contact angle (WCA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. We thus proposed two microstructures caused by the difference of polymer chain sequences. Through this polymerization transformation (Ŧ) approach (i.e., ESCP-Ŧ-NMP), we demonstrated an interesting and facile strategy for the preparations of μ-stars with adjustable/switchable interior and exterior polymer structures toward the preparations of various nanomaterials.

Keywords: ESCP; NMP; miktoarm star copolymers; poly(tert-butyl acrylate); polystyrene.