Silver Nanoparticles Formation by Jatropha integerrima and LC/MS-QTOF-Based Metabolite Profiling

Nanomaterials (Basel). 2021 Sep 15;11(9):2400. doi: 10.3390/nano11092400.


The broad application of metal nanoparticles in different fields encourages scientists to find alternatives to conventional synthesis methods to reduce negative environmental impacts. Herein, we described a safe method for preparing silver nanoparticles (J-AgNPs) using Jatropha integerrima leaves extract as a reducing agent and further characterize its physiochemical and pharmacological properties to identify its therapeutic potential as a cytotoxic and antimicrobial agent. The biogenic synthesized J-AgNPs were physiochemically characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. HPLC-DAD, followed by LC/MS and the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), was applied to detect the biomolecules of J. integerrima involved in the fabrication of NPs. Furthermore, J-AgNPs and the ampicillin-nanocomposite conjugate were investigated for their potential antibacterial effects against four clinical isolates. Finally, cytotoxic effects were also investigated against cancer and normal cell lines, and their mechanism was assessed using TEM analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy (LSM). Ag ions were reduced to spherical J-AgNPs, with a zeta potential of -34.7 mV as well as an average size of 91.2 and 22.8 nm as detected by DLS and TEM, respectively. HPLC GC/MC analysis identified five biomolecules, and FTIR suggested the presence of proteins besides polyphenolic molecules; together, these molecules could be responsible for the reduction and capping processes during NP formation. Additionally, J-AgNPs displayed a strong antibacterial effect, although the ampicillin conjugated form had a very weak antibacterial effect. Furthermore, the NPs caused a reduction in cell viability of all the treated cells by initiating ultrastructural changes and apoptosis, as identified by TEM and LSM analysis. Therefore, J-AgNPs can be formed using the leaf extract from the J. integerrima plant. Furthermore, J-AgNPs may serve as a candidate for further biochemical and pharmacological testing to identify its therapeutic value.

Keywords: HPLC; antibacterial; apoptosis; cytotoxicity; nano-antibiotics composite.