Risk of Micronutrient Inadequacy among Hispanic, Lactating Mothers: Preliminary Evidence from the Southern California Mother's Milk Study

Nutrients. 2021 Sep 18;13(9):3252. doi: 10.3390/nu13093252.


Micronutrients are dietary components important for health and physiological function, and inadequate intake of these nutrients can contribute to poor health outcomes. The risk of inadequate micronutrient intake has been shown to be greater among low-income Hispanics and postpartum and lactating women. Therefore, we aimed to determine the risk of nutrient inadequacies based on preliminary evidence among postpartum, Hispanic women. Risk of micronutrient inadequacy for Hispanic women (29-45 years of age) from the Southern California Mother's Milk Study (n = 188) was assessed using 24 h dietary recalls at 1 and 6 months postpartum and the estimated average requirement (EAR) fixed cut-point approach. Women were considered at risk of inadequate intake for a nutrient if more than 50% of women were consuming below the EAR. The Chronic Disease Risk Reduction (CDRR) value was also used to assess sodium intake. These women were at risk of inadequate intake for folate and vitamins A, D, and E, with 87.0%, 93.4%, 43.8%, and 95% of women consuming less than the EAR for these nutrients, respectively. Lastly, 71.7% of women consumed excess sodium. Results from this preliminary analysis indicate that Hispanic women are at risk of inadequate intake of important micronutrients for maternal and child health.

Keywords: Hispanics; lactating women; micronutrients; nutrient inadequacy; postpartum diet.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • California / epidemiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diet*
  • Eating
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Lactation / physiology*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Micronutrients / deficiency*
  • Middle Aged
  • Milk, Human
  • Mothers / statistics & numerical data*
  • Postpartum Period / physiology
  • Sodium, Dietary / administration & dosage


  • Micronutrients
  • Sodium, Dietary