Prevalence and multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica Typhimurium: an overview in South East Asia

World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2021 Sep 28;37(11):185. doi: 10.1007/s11274-021-03146-8.


Acute/chronic gastroenteritis is caused by a few serovars of Salmonella enterica. Among different serovars, S. enterica Typhimurium is a potent pathogen that contributes significantly to self-limiting diarrhea related mortality worldwide. With no successful vaccine in hand against this pathogen, antibiotics are used as for gold standard for treatment against Salmonella induced gastroenteritis. Indispensably, rise in multi drug resistance against Salmonella Typhimurium poses challenge to treatment options. South East Asia, with 11 different countries, stands 3rd as super region for global burden of Salmonella induced gastroenteritis. In this review, we made an attempt to discuss on prevalence and multidrug resistance in Salmonella Typhimurium in 11 countries of South East Asia-the issue that has not been seriously addressed so far. By thorough analysis of reported data, we found varying frequencies for prevalence of Salmonella Typhimurium as well as subtle evidences on resistance of this pathogen to multiple antibiotics in different countries. Vietnam ranked top in terms of reports for prevalence and antimicrobial resistance. However, in countries such as Brunei and Timor Leste, no study has been performed so far to track the frequency of incidence and drug resistance of this pathogen. Our review, the first of its kind, emphasizes that, although the pathogen was not found as dominant serovar in South East Asia in last 20 years unlike sub-Saharan Africa, it may be still considered as a major threat in this region due to available evidences for infection in humans as well as contamination in several animal and food sources. More importantly, the importance as a public threat in this subregion of Asia is also due to resistance of this pathogen to multiple antibiotics. South East Asian countries showing incidence and multi drug resistance of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium in human and non-human sources (1969-2020). -Drug resistant S. enterica Typhimurium.

Keywords: Multi drug resistance; Prevalence; Salmonella Typhimurium; South East Asia.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Asia, Eastern / epidemiology
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial* / drug effects
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Salmonella Infections / epidemiology
  • Salmonella Infections / microbiology*
  • Salmonella enterica
  • Salmonella typhimurium / drug effects*
  • Serogroup


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents