Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Low-Income, Latinx Children in Immigrant Families: Comparison of Children in Rural Farmworker and Urban Non-Farmworker Communities

J Immigr Minor Health. 2022 Aug;24(4):977-986. doi: 10.1007/s10903-021-01274-9. Epub 2021 Sep 27.


Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressors that can have lifelong detrimental health effects. ACEs are a concern for children of immigrant parents. The low-income mothers of 75 rural farmworker and 63 urban non-farmworker 8-year old Latinx children in immigrant families completed a standardized ACEs inventory. 47.1% of mothers reported no ACEs, 33.3% reported 1, 8.7% reported 2, and 10.9% reported 3 or more. A logistic regression model indicated that urban versus rural children had a higher odds (OR = 2.35, 95% CI = 1.01, 5.48) of at least one ACE. Children living in families with 2 versus 1 adults (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.49) and 3 versus 1 adults (OR = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.78) had a lower odds of at least one ACE. ACEs prevalence was similar to other children in immigrant families, with children living in urban communities having twice the likelihood of experiencing an ACE. Detailed research is needed on locality-based ACEs prevalence.

Keywords: Child health; Farmworkers; Health disparities; Immigrant health; Latinx; Rural–urban differences.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences*
  • Child
  • Emigrants and Immigrants*
  • Farmers
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Poverty / psychology
  • Rural Population