Purpose: We evaluated the diagnostic utility of abdominal ultrasound (AUS), an adjunct to abdominal X-ray (AXR), for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in congenital heart disease (CHD) patients.
Methods: 86 patients with suspected NEC from 2009 to 2018 were classified as with CHD (n = 18) if they required cardiac intervention versus without CHD (n = 68). Clinical and radiological data were collected, including AXR and AUS concordance. Wilcoxon rank-sum test and Fisher's exact test were performed.
Results: CHD patients had higher birth weights (p < 0.001) and gestational ages (p < 0.001) than non-CHD patients. CHD patients presented more frequently with hypotension (p = 0.041) and less frequently with bilious emesis (p < 0.001). Overall, CHD patients were less likely to have AUS findings of pneumatosis (33.3 vs. 72.1%; p = 0.005) and decreased mural flow (0 vs. 20.6%; p = 0.035) compared to non-CHD patients. On concordance analysis, CHD patients had 3.9-fold more discordant studies with pneumatosis on AXR but not on AUS (33.3 vs. 8.8%; p = 0.016) compared to non-CHD patients. Urgent surgery was required in 5.6% of CHD patients versus 16.2% of non-CHD patients.
Conclusion: CHD patients with suspected NEC represent a distinct clinical population. AUS has particular utility in assessing findings of bowel viability in the CHD NEC population, reflecting reduced rates of surgical NEC.
Keywords: Abdominal radiograph; Abdominal ultrasound; Cardiac; Congenital heart disease; Necrotizing enterocolitis; Pneumatosis.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.