Challenges on the effect of cell phone radiation on mammalian embryos and fetuses: a review of the literature

Zygote. 2021 Sep 29;1-7. doi: 10.1017/S0967199421000691. Online ahead of print.


Cell phones operate with a wide range of frequency bands and emit radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR). Concern on the possible health hazards of RF-EMR has been growing in many countries because these RF-EMR pulses may be absorbed into the body cells, directly affecting them. There are some in vitro and in vivo animal studies related to the consequences of RF-EMR exposure from cell phones on embryo development and offspring. In addition, some studies have revealed that RF-EMR from cellular phone may lead to decrease in the rates of fertilization and embryo development, as well as the risk of the developmental anomalies, other studies have reported that it does not interfere with in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection success rates, or the chromosomal aberration rate. Of course, it is unethical to study the effect of waves generated from cell phones on the forming human embryos. Conversely, other mammals have many similarities to humans in terms of anatomy, physiology and genetics. Therefore, in this review we focused on the existing literature evaluating the potential effects of RF-EMR on mammalian embryonic and fetal development.

Keywords: Cell phone; Embryo development; Fetus; Mammal; Radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR).

Publication types

  • Review