Early-onset bradykinetic rigid syndrome and reflex seizures in a child with PURA syndrome

Epileptic Disord. 2021 Oct 1;23(5):745-748. doi: 10.1684/epd.2021.1328.


PURA syndrome is a distinct form of developmental encephalopathy, characterized by early-onset hypotonia, severe developmental delay, intellectual disability, epilepsy and respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders. We report a child with PURA syndrome, harbouring a previously described mutation, whose phenotype included two peculiar aspects: (1) hypokinetic-rigid syndrome, which was part of the clinical presentation from an early stage of the disease, and (2) reflex seizures, consisting of a series of spasms. We provide detailed clinical description and video recordings demonstrating both these aspects that are newly described in PURA syndrome. The early clinical features described here may therefore be included in the complex phenotype associated with PURA gene mutations and may help in the early diagnosis of patients. Furthermore, PURA syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of early-onset bradykinetic rigid syndromes.

Keywords: PURA gene; PURA syndrome; bradykinetic-rigid syndrome; reflex seizures.

MeSH terms

  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • Epilepsy*
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability*
  • Muscle Hypotonia
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Reflex
  • Seizures / diagnosis
  • Seizures / genetics
  • Syndrome
  • Transcription Factors / genetics


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • PURA protein, human
  • Transcription Factors