Infratentorial oligodendrogliomas, a rare pathological entity, are generally considered metastatic lesions from supratentorial primary tumors. Here, we report the case of a 23-year-old man presenting with a histopathologically confirmed right precentral gyrus grade 2 oligodendroglioma and a concurrent pontine grade 3 oligodendroglioma. The pontine lesion was biopsied approximately a year after the biopsy of the precentral lesion due to disease progression despite 4 cycles of procarbazine-CCNU-vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy and stable supratentorial disease. Histology and genetic analysis of the pontine biopsy were consistent with grade 3 oligodendroglioma, and comparison of the two lesions demonstrated common 1p/19q co-deletions and TERT promoter mutations but distinct IDH1 mutations, with a non-canonical IDH1 R132G mutation identified in the infratentorial lesion and a R132H mutation identified in the cortical lesion. Initiation of Temozolomide led to complete response of the supratentorial lesion and durable disease control, while Temozolomide with subsequent radiation therapy of 54 Gy in 30 fractions resulted in partial response of the pontine lesion. This case report supports possible distinct molecular pathogenesis in supratentorial and infratentorial oligodendrogliomas and raises questions about the role of different IDH1 mutant isoforms in explaining treatment resistance to different chemotherapy regimens. Importantly, this case suggests that biopsies of all radiographic lesions, when feasible and safe, should be considered in order to adequately guide management in multicentric oligodendrogliomas.
Keywords: IDH mutant; Infratentorial; Low-Grade Glioma; Multifocal; Supratentorial.
© 2021. The Author(s).