Introduction: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with immediate impact on the individual's health and quality of life. Major functional recovery reaches a plateau 3-4 months after injury despite intensive rehabilitative training. To enhance training efficacy and improve long-term outcomes, the combination of rehabilitation with electrical modulation of the spinal cord and brain has recently aroused scientific interest with encouraging results. The mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR), an evolutionarily conserved brainstem locomotor command and control centre, is considered a promising target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with SCI. Experiments showed that MLR-DBS can induce locomotion in rats with spinal white matter destructions of >85%.
Methods and analysis: In this prospective one-armed multi-centre study, we investigate the safety, feasibility, and therapeutic efficacy of MLR-DBS to enable and enhance locomotor training in severely affected, subchronic and chronic American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale C patients in order to improve functional recovery. Patients undergo an intensive training programme with MLR-DBS while being regularly followed up until 6 months post-implantation. The acquired data of each timepoint are compared with baseline while the primary endpoint is performance in the 6-minute walking test. The clinical trial protocol was written in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials checklist.
Ethics and dissemination: This first in-man study investigates the therapeutic potential of MLR-DBS in SCI patients. One patient has already been implanted with electrodes and underwent MLR stimulation during locomotion. Based on the preliminary results which promise safety and feasibility, recruitment of further patients is currently ongoing. Ethical approval has been obtained from the Ethical Committee of the Canton of Zurich (case number BASEC 2016-01104) and Swissmedic (10000316). Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences.
Trial registration number: NCT03053791.
Keywords: clinical trials; neurological injury; neurosurgery; rehabilitation medicine; spine.
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