Evaluation of the Impact of Immunization Second Year of Life Training Interventions on Health Care Workers in Ghana

Glob Health Sci Pract. 2021 Sep 30;9(3):498-507. doi: 10.9745/GHSP-D-21-00091. Print 2021 Sep 30.


Introduction: As part of a suite of training interventions to improve the knowledge and practice of immunization in the second year of life (2YL), training of trainers workshops were conducted with regional and district health management teams (DHMTs) in 15 districts in 3 regions of Ghana. Using adult learning principles, DHMTs implemented several capacity-building activities at the subdistrict and health facility levels, including health facility visits, on-the-job training, and review meetings. The current evaluation investigated whether frontline health care workers (HCWs) reported or demonstrated improvements in knowledge, attitudes, and practices after training interventions.

Methods: Quantitative and qualitative methods with a utilization-focused approach guided the framework for this evaluation. A systematic random sample of 115 HCWs in 3 regions of Ghana was selected to complete a competency survey before and after training, which focused on 3 core competency areas-Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) policy; communication with caregivers; and immunization data management, recording, and use. Interviews and direct observations by data collectors were done to assess HCWs' knowledge, self-reported attitude, and behavior changes in practices.

Results: Of 115 HCWs, 102 were surveyed before and 4 months after receiving capacity-building interventions. Modest but not statistically significant improvements were found in knowledge on EPI policy, immunization data management, and communication skills with caregivers. HCWs reported that they had improved several attitudes and practices after the 2YL training. The most improved practice reported by HCWs and observed in all 3 regions was the creation of a defaulter list.

Discussion: Findings of this evaluation provide encouraging evidence in taking the first step toward improving HCW knowledge, attitudes, and practices for 3 core immunization competency areas. The use of learner-focused teaching methods combined with adult learning principles is helpful in solving specific performance problems (such as lack of knowledge of EPI policy).

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Ghana
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Personnel*
  • Humans
  • Immunization
  • Immunization Programs
  • Vaccination*