Karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid cells and report of chromosomal abnormalities in 15,401 cases of Iranian women

Sci Rep. 2021 Sep 30;11(1):19402. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-98928-3.


The aim of present study was to assess the karyotypes of amniotic fluid cells and find the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and their significance in clinical setting. A total of 15,401 pregnant women were assessed from March 2016 to May 2019, and 14,968 amniotic fluid samples were successfully cultured. These fetuses were grouped according to different indications including advanced maternal age, abnormal nuchal translucency (NT) values, positive first/second trimester screening results, high risk NIPT results, very low PAPP-A and free β-hCG multiples of the normal median (MoM) results, abnormal ultrasound findings or previous history of chromosomal abnormalities. Results indicated the presence of normal karyotype in 90.2% (13,497/14,968) of fetuses. Totally, 46.4% (6945/14,968) of fetuses were 46,XX and 43.8% (6552/14,968) had 46,XY chromosome pattern. A total of 1077 abnormal karyotypes were found among 14,968 fetuses, thus the rate of abnormal fetuses was calculated to be 7.2% (1072/14,968). Meanwhile, a total of 394 cases (2.8%) had a normal polymorphism in their karyotype. In other words, abnormal karyotypes were detected in one of 13.9 cases of patients underwent amniocentesis. Down syndrome, Edward's syndrome, abnormal mosaicisms and Patau's syndrome were detected in 4.4% (659/14,968), 0.57% (85/14,968), 0.49% (74/14,968) and 0.24% (36/14,968) of cases, respectively. Sex chromosomal abnormalities including Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome and 47,XXX karyotype were detected in 64 cases (0.43%). In this article, the rates of chromosomal abnormalities are compared between different groups of patients based on the advanced maternal age, abnormal NT values, very low PAPP-A and free β-hCG MoMs results, and positive FTS results. The current investigation provides insight into the most appropriate indications for amniocentesis in Iran.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Amniocentesis / methods
  • Chromosome Aberrations / statistics & numerical data*
  • Congenital Abnormalities* / diagnosis
  • Congenital Abnormalities* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Prenatal Diagnosis / methods*