Acceptability of a Dapivirine Gel Administered Rectally to HIV-1 Seronegative Adults (MTN-033 Study)

AIDS Educ Prev. 2021 Oct;33(5):361-376. doi: 10.1521/aeap.2021.33.5.361.


We triangulated quantitative and qualitative assessments to evaluate participants' acceptability of 0.05% dapivirine rectal microbicide (RM) gel administered via two separate modalities (a rectal applicator and an artificial phallus for use as a coital simulation device) as part of a Phase I trial (N = 14) among men who have sex with men (MSM) randomized using a 1:1 ratio. Overall, participants reported favorable acceptability of the gel (n = 11; 78.6%), the same or more at the end of the study compared to when they started the study. Additionally, when discussing their preferred administration modality, they noted that both methods had positive qualities but also potential areas of improvement. Our findings underscore the need to create multiple delivery methods for a future microbicide gel (i.e., with and without the need for an applicator) and highlight the importance of offering MSM choices in how biomedical HIV prevention strategies are delivered.

Keywords: HIV; HIV prevention; behavioral congruence; microbicides; rectal.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Rectal
  • Adult
  • HIV Infections* / prevention & control
  • HIV-1*
  • Homosexuality, Male
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pyrimidines
  • Sexual and Gender Minorities*


  • Pyrimidines
  • Dapivirine