Enthesitis-related arthritis: monitoring and specific tools

J Pediatr (Rio J). 2022 May-Jun;98(3):223-229. doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2021.08.002. Epub 2021 Sep 28.


Objectives: In this article, the authors aimed to review the different tools used in the monitoring of enthesitis-related arthritis.

Sources: The authors performed a literature review on PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases. The dataset included the original research and the reviews including patients with enthesitis-related arthritis or juvenile spondylarthritis up to October 2020.

Summary of finding: Enthesitis-related arthritis is a category of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It is characterized by the presence of enthesitis, peripheral arthritis, as well as axial involvement. The only validated tool for disease activity measurement in juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the Disease Activity Score: It has proven its reliability and sensitivity. Nevertheless, due to an absence of validated evaluation tools, the extent of functional impairment, as well as the children and parents' perception of the disease, could not be objectively perceived. Despite the great progress in the field of imaging modalities, the role they play in the evaluation of disease activity is still controversial. This is partially due to the lack of validated scoring systems.

Conclusions: Further work is still required to standardize the monitoring strategy and validate the outcome measures in enthesitis-related arthritis.

Keywords: Enthesitis related arthritis; Juvenile idiopathic arthritis; Monitoring; Spondylarthritis; Tools.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Arthritis, Juvenile* / complications
  • Arthritis, Juvenile* / diagnosis
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Spondylarthritis*