Incorporating genetic and clinical data into the prediction of thromboembolism risk in patients with lymphoma

Cancer Med. 2021 Nov;10(21):7585-7592. doi: 10.1002/cam4.4280. Epub 2021 Oct 1.


Background: The incorporation of genetic variables into risk scores for predicting venous thromboembolic events (VTE) could improve their capacity to identify those patients for whom thromboprophylaxis would be most beneficial. Proof-of-concept of this is provided by the TiC-ONCO score for predicting the risk of VTE in patients with solid tumours. Our aim was to develop a similarly improved tool-the TiC-LYMPHO score-for predicting VTE in patients with lymphoma.

Methods: In a retrospective observational study of 208 patients with lymphoma, 31 (14.9%) were found to have experienced an episode of VTE either at the time of diagnosis or over the next 6 months. Clinical variables associated with VTE, determined via logistic regression analysis, plus the same genetic variables included in the TiC-ONCO score, were used to build the TiC-LYMPHO score algorithm. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and AUC of the TiC-LYMPHO, the Khorana and ThroLy scores were compared in the same population.

Results: The TiC-LYMPHO score showed a significantly higher AUC, sensitivity and NPV (0.783, 95.35% and 97.98% respectively) than the other scores. The ThroLy score showed a significantly higher specificity (96.43% vs. 54.49%; p < 0.0001) and PPV (37.50% vs. 26.36%; p = 0.0147) than the TiC-LYMPHO score, whereas its AUC, sensitivity and NPV were significantly lower (0.579, 19.35% and 86.48%, respectively).

Conclusion: These results show that by incorporating genetic and clinical data into VTE risk assessment, the TiC-LYMPHO score can categorize patients with lymphoma better in terms of their risk of VTE and allow individualized thromboprophylaxis to be prescribed.

Keywords: genetic risk score; lymphoma complications; thromboembolism risk.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Algorithms
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Hodgkin Disease / complications*
  • Hodgkin Disease / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / complications*
  • Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / genetics*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Proof of Concept Study
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment / methods*
  • Risk Factors
  • Venous Thromboembolism / etiology*
  • Venous Thromboembolism / prevention & control


  • Anticoagulants