Ceftazidime is a 3rd generation cephalosporin active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Avibactam is an inhibitor of class A, C and some class D β-lactamases. The antibacterial spectrum of ceftazidime-avibactam covers 95% of P. aeruginosa isolates and >99% of enterobacteria, including strains carrying extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs). Selection of resistant mutants in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae strains producing KPC-3 or KPC-2 after exposure to ceftazidime-avibactam has been described by the appearance of one or more amino acid changes in the Ω-loop of the β-lactamase. These strains usually regain susceptibility to meropenem. There is evidence of a shorter multidrug-resistant organisms colonization period in patients treated with this antimicrobial, which could be beneficial in the treatment of infections caused by bacteria carrying ESBLs or carbapenemases.