Pharmacologic Treatment for Temporomandibular and Temporomandibular Joint Disorders

Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2022 Feb;34(1):49-59. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2021.08.001. Epub 2021 Sep 29.


Temporomandibular joint disorder is defined by pain and/or loss of function of the temporomandibular joint and its associated muscles and structures. Treatments include noninvasive pharmacologic therapies, minimally invasive muscular and articular injections, and surgery. Conservative therapies include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, muscle relaxants, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. Minimally invasive injections include botulinum toxin, corticosteroids, platelet-rich plasma, hyaluronic acid, and prolotherapy with hypertonic glucose. With many pharmacologic treatment options and modalities available to the oral and maxillofacial surgeon, mild to moderate temporomandibular joint disorder can be managed safely and effectively to improve symptoms of pain and function of the temporomandibular joint.

Keywords: Botox; Intra-articular injections; Pharmacotherapy; Prolotherapy; TMD.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hyaluronic Acid / therapeutic use
  • Injections, Intra-Articular
  • Temporomandibular Joint
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders* / drug therapy


  • Anticonvulsants
  • Hyaluronic Acid