Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis

Pediatr Rev. 2021 Oct;42(10):539-545. doi: 10.1542/pir.2020-003277.


Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a common condition seen in the first 1 to 3 months after birth. Patients typically present with nonbilious projectile emesis after feeds that may result in hypokalemic, hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Although inability to tolerate feeds is frequently seen with self-limited conditions such as reflux, a low threshold to obtain an ultrasonographic image is important to prevent a delay in diagnosis. Although operative intervention is the treatment, it is imperative that patients are hydrated and serum electrolyte concentrations normalized before the induction of anesthesia. Laparoscopic pyloromyotomy is safe and effective. Postoperative emesis is normal, and reassurance to parents is appropriate. There is no significant long-term physiologic impairment from pyloric stenosis after successful surgical intervention.

MeSH terms

  • Alkalosis*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic* / diagnosis
  • Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic* / surgery
  • Vomiting / etiology