Very Elevated IgE, Atopy, and Severe Infection: A Genomics-Based Diagnostic Approach to a Spectrum of Diseases

Case Reports Immunol. 2021 Sep 24;2021:2767012. doi: 10.1155/2021/2767012. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Elevated IgE has been long recognized as an important clinical marker of atopy but can be seen in a myriad of conditions. The discovery of autosomal dominant STAT3 deficiency marked the first recognition of hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) and the first primary immunodeficiency linked to elevated IgE. Since then, genomic testing has increased the number of defects with associated mutations causing hyper-IgE syndrome and atopic diseases with FLG, DOCK8, SPINK5, and CARD11, among others. A spectrum of recurrent infections and atopy are hallmarks of elevated IgE with significant phenotypic overlap between each underlying condition. As treatment is predicated on early diagnosis, genomic testing is becoming a more commonly used diagnostic tool. We present a 6-year-old male patient with markedly elevated IgE and severe atopic dermatitis presenting with staphylococcal bacteremia found to have a heterozygous variant in FLG (p.S3247X) and multiple variants of unknown significance in BCL11B, ZAP70, LYST, and PTPRC. We review the genetic defects underpinning elevated IgE and highlight the spectrum of atopy and immunodeficiency seen in patients with underlying mutations. Although no one mutation is completely causative of the constellation of symptoms in this patient, we suggest the synergism of these variants is an impetus of disease.

Publication types

  • Case Reports