Malignant bladder neoplasms represent a significant disease burden not only for urologists but also the broader medical community. While the majority of bladder tumors are urothelial in origin, up to two percent are found to be adenocarcinomas. Among bladder adenocarcinomas, roughly one-tenth are urachal and are frequently located at the dome of the bladder where urachal remnants can often be found. We describe a case of bladder adenocarcinoma that presented at the dome of the bladder but ultimately exhibited a nonurachal histology. A 65-year-old male with a history of myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident with residual right-sided hemiparesis and aphasia was referred to our clinic for evaluation of a bladder mass discovered in the setting of painless gross hematuria. Diagnostic cystoscopy demonstrated a large mass at the dome of the bladder, and subsequent transurethral resection revealed stage T1 mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in a villous adenomatous lesion without the presence of muscle in the specimen. The patient underwent a robotic-assisted laparoscopic partial cystectomy with extended bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection. Postoperatively, the patient experienced short-lived paralytic ileus and was discharged on postoperative day 5. Follow-up surveillance imaging at 6 months with CT chest, abdomen, and pelvis, repeat office cystoscopy, and negative tumor markers postoperatively indicated no evidence of disease recurrence. Characterization of bladder adenocarcinomas into urachal and nonurachal subtypes is critical in differentiating the operative management and oncologic outcomes of the respective neoplasms. However, given the paucity of literature describing treatment approaches to bladder adenocarcinoma in general, existing methods have largely mirrored genetically similar neoplasms, including ovarian and colon adenocarcinomas. Although there is still much to be understood regarding the potential mechanisms of carcinogenesis of nonurachal adenocarcinomas, further investigation may pave the way for a more standardized treatment paradigm and provide insight into the potential utility of modern immunotherapies.
Copyright © 2021 George Khludenev et al.