One of the key drivers of antibiotic resistance (ABR) and drug-resistant bacterial infections is the misuse and overuse of antibiotics in human populations. Infection management and antibiotic decision-making are multifactorial, complex processes influenced by context and involving many actors. Social constructs including race, ethnicity, gender identity and cultural and religious practices as well as migration status and geography influence health. Infection and ABR are also affected by these external drivers in individuals and populations leading to stratified health outcomes. These drivers compromise the capacity and resources of healthcare services already over-burdened with drug-resistant infections. In this review we consider the current evidence and call for a need to broaden the study of culture and power dynamics in healthcare through investigation of relative power, hierarchies and sociocultural constructs including structures, race, caste, social class and gender identity as predictors of health-providing and health-seeking behaviours. This approach will facilitate a more sustainable means of addressing the threat of ABR and identify vulnerable groups ensuring greater inclusivity in decision-making. At an individual level, investigating how social constructs and gender hierarchies impact clinical team interactions, communication and decision-making in infection management and the role of the patient and carers will support better engagement to optimize behaviours. How people of different race, class and gender identity seek, experience and provide healthcare for bacterial infections and use antibiotics needs to be better understood in order to facilitate inclusivity of marginalized groups in decision-making and policy.
© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.