Real-world experience of CPX-351 as first-line treatment for patients with acute myeloid leukemia

Blood Cancer J. 2021 Oct 4;11(10):164. doi: 10.1038/s41408-021-00558-5.


To investigate the efficacy and toxicities of CPX-351 outside a clinical trial, we analyzed 188 patients (median age 65 years, range 26-80) treated for therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML, 29%) or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC, 70%). Eighty-six percent received one, 14% two induction cycles, and 10% received consolidation (representing 22% of patients with CR/CRi) with CPX-351. Following induction, CR/CRi rate was 47% including 64% of patients with available information achieving measurable residual disease (MRD) negativity (<10-3) as measured by flow cytometry. After a median follow-up of 9.3 months, median overall survival (OS) was 21 months and 1-year OS rate 64%. In multivariate analysis, complex karyotype predicted lower response (p = 0.0001), while pretreatment with hypomethylating agents (p = 0.02) and adverse European LeukemiaNet 2017 genetic risk (p < 0.0001) were associated with lower OS. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) was performed in 116 patients (62%) resulting in promising outcome (median survival not reached, 1-year OS 73%), especially in MRD-negative patients (p = 0.048). With 69% of patients developing grade III/IV non-hematologic toxicity following induction and a day 30-mortality of 8% the safety profile was consistent with previous findings. These real-world data confirm CPX-351 as efficient treatment for these high-risk AML patients facilitating allo-HCT in many patients with promising outcome after transplantation.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Allografts
  • Cytarabine / administration & dosage*
  • Daunorubicin / administration & dosage*
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Humans
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / blood
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / mortality
  • Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute* / therapy
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm, Residual
  • Survival Rate


  • CPX-351
  • Cytarabine
  • Daunorubicin