Effect of Amelotin on Bone Growth in the Murine Calvarial Defect Model

Ann Biomed Eng. 2021 Oct 4. doi: 10.1007/s10439-021-02867-z. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Amelotin (AMTN) is a protein that is expressed during the maturation of dental enamel and has important role in enamel hydroxyapatite mineralization. However, it is not well understood whether AMTN has a strong mineral-promoting ability in bone. In this study, the effect of AMTN on bone healing was investigated using mice calvarial defect model in vivo, and the expression of bone marker genes and cell proliferation were investigated to clarify the role of AMTN in bone mineralization using mouse osteogenic cells (MC3T3-E1) in vitro. Collagen membranes, with or without recombinant human (rh) AMTN, were applied to calvarial defects created on the parietal bones of C57BL/6N mice. Microcomputed tomography and histological observation revealed that the defect largely filled with mineralized tissue by the rhAMTN-containing membrane in eight weeks. Moreover, CD31 positive cells were observed in the newly formed mineralized tissue and around the rhAMTN-containing membrane. In the presence of rhAMTN, the expression of the Spp1 gene in MC3T3-E1 cells significantly increased within ten days in an osteoinductive medium. Moreover, rhAMTN significantly enhanced MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. These findings indicate that AMTN positively influences bone repair by promoting hydroxyapatite mineralization.

Keywords: Amelotin; Bioengineering; Bone healing; Matrix mineralization; Non-collagenous proteins.