Genetic associated complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus

Panminerva Med. 2022 Jun;64(2):274-288. doi: 10.23736/S0031-0808.21.04285-3. Epub 2021 Oct 5.


According to the International Diabetes Federation, the number of adults (age of 20-79) being diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased from 285 million in year 2009 to 463 million in year 2019 which comprises of 95% type 2 DM patient (T2DM). Research have claimed that genetic predisposition could be one of the factors causing T2DM complications. In addition, T2DM complications cause an incremental risk to mortality. Therefore, this article aims to discuss some complications of T2DM in and their genetic association. The complications that are discussed in this article are diabetic nephropathy, diabetes induced cardiovascular disease, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). According to the information obtained, genes associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) are gene GABRR1 and ELMO1 that cause injury to glomerular. Replication of genes FRMD3, CARS and MYO16/IRS2 shown to have link with DN. The increase of gene THBS2, NGAL, PIP, TRAF6 polymorphism, ICAM-1 encoded for rs5498 polymorphism and C667T increase susceptibility towards DN in T2DM patient. Genes associated with cardiovascular diseases are adiponectin gene (ACRP30) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) polymorphism gene with ξ2 allele. Haptoglobin (Hp) 1-1 genotype and mitochondria superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) plays a role in cardiovascular events. As for genes related to diabetic neuropathy, janus kinase (JAK), mutation of SCN9A and TRPA1 gene and destruction of miRNA contribute to pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy among T2DM patients. Expression of cytokine IL-6, IL-10, miR-146a are found to cause diabetic neuropathy. Besides, A1a16Va1 gene polymorphism, an oxidative stress influence was found as one of the gene factors. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is believed to have association with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Over-expression of gene ENPP1, IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokine, ARHGAP22's protein rs3844492 polymorphism and TLR4 heterozygous genotype are contributing to significant pathophysiological process causing DR, while research found increases level of UCP1 gene protects retina cells from oxidative stress. DFU is manifested by slowing in re-epithelialization of keratinocyte, persistence wound inflammation and healing impairment. Re-epithelialization disturbance was caused by E2F3 gene, reduction of Tacl gene encoded substance P causing persistence inflammation while expression of MMp-9 polymorphism contributes to healing impairment. A decrease in HIF-1a gene expression leads to increased risk of pathogenesis, while downregulation of TLR2 increases severity of wound in DFU patients. SNPs alleles has been shown to have significant association between the genetic dispositions of T<inf>2</inf>DM and AD. The progression of AD can be due to the change in DNA methylation of CLOCK gene, followed with worsening of AD by APOE4 gene due to dyslipidemia condition in T2DM patients. Insulin resistance is also a factor that contributes to pathogenesis of AD.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cardiovascular Diseases* / complications
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / metabolism
  • Diabetic Foot* / complications
  • Diabetic Foot* / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Foot* / genetics
  • Diabetic Nephropathies* / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Nephropathies* / genetics
  • Diabetic Neuropathies* / complications
  • Diabetic Neuropathies* / genetics
  • Diabetic Retinopathy*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Interleukin-6 / genetics
  • NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide


  • Interleukin-6
  • NAV1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel
  • SCN9A protein, human