Effect of equalization filters on measurements with kerma-area product meter in a cardiovascular angiography system

J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2021 Dec;22(12):177-185. doi: 10.1002/acm2.13444. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Abstract

Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of equalization filters (EFs) on the kerma-area product ( K A P Q K M ) and incident air-kerma ( K a , i , Q K M ) using a kerma-area product (KAP) meter. In addition, potential underestimations of the K a , i , Q K M values by EFs were identified.

Materials and methods: A portable flat-panel detector (FPD) was placed to measure the X-ray beam area (A) and EFs dimension at patient entrance reference point (PERP). Afterward, a 6-cm3 external ionization chamber was placed to measure incident air-kerma ( K a , i , Q e x t ) at PERP instead of the portable FPD. KAP reading and K a , i , Q e x t were simultaneously measured at several X-ray beam qualities with and without EFs. The X-ray beam quality correction factor by KAP meter ( k Q , Q 0 K M ) was calculated by A, K a , i , Q e x t and KAP reading to acquire the K A P Q K M and K a , i , Q K M . Upon completion of the measurements, K A P Q K M , K a , i , Q K M , and K a , i , Q e x t were plotted as functions of tube potential, spectral filter, and EFs dimension. Moreover, K a , i , Q K M / K a , i , Q e x t values were calculated to evaluate the K a , i , Q K M underestimation.

Results: The k Q , Q 0 K M values increased with an increase in the X-ray tube potential and spectral filter, and the maximum k Q , Q 0 K M was 1.18. K A P Q K M and K a , i , Q K M decreased as functions of EFs dimension, whereas K a , i , Q e x t was almost constant. K a , i , Q K M / K a , i , Q e x t decreased with an increase in EFs dimension but increased with an increase in tube potential and spectral filter, and the range was 0.55-1.01.

Conclusions: K a , i , Q K M value was up to approximately two times lower than the K a , i , Q e x t values by EFs. When using the K a , i , Q K M value, the potential K a , i , Q K M underestimation with EFs should be considered.

Keywords: equalization filter; kerma-area product meter; measurement accuracy; percutaneous coronary intervention.

MeSH terms

  • Angiography*
  • Calibration
  • Fluoroscopy
  • Humans
  • Radiation Dosage
  • Radiography