Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in Brazilian women living with HIV: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2022 Apr;20(4):611-620. doi: 10.1080/14787210.2022.1990039. Epub 2021 Oct 22.


Objective: We systematically investigated the prevalence of HPV, high-risk HPV and its genotypes in women living with human immunodeficiency virus (WLHIV) in Brazil.

Methods: A systematic search was performed up to 15 December 2020. We included studies that used molecular methods for HPV detection in cervical samples and reported the prevalence of HPV in Brazilian WLHIV. The pooled prevalence of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR HPV) and HPV types and their 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were conducted.

Results: Thity-seven studies accounting for 8,436 WLHIV were included. The pooled HPV prevalence was 62% (95%CI 55-68%; I2 = 96.98%; P < 0.001). Prevalence of high-risk HPV was 40% (95%CI, 54-68%; I2 = 94.23%; P < 0.001). We found a wide variety of high-risk HPV genotypes. The high-risk HPV types most reported were HPV 16 (16%) and HPV 58 (6%). We found an increasing ratio of positivity from normal cervix to cancer. There were different factors associated with high-risk HPV, with low CD4+ count the most frequent.

Conclusion: The increase in the ratio of high-risk HPV positivity from normal cervix to carcinogenic lesions highlights the need to implement well-established testing for high-risk HPV in this population.

Keywords: Brazil; Human papillomavirus; human immunodeficiency virus; meta-analysis; prevalence; systematic review; women living with human immunodeficiency virus.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Brazil / epidemiology
  • Female
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Papillomaviridae / genetics
  • Papillomavirus Infections*
  • Prevalence
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms* / epidemiology